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Connecting Solar Panels Together





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How to Connect Solar Panels Together

solar powerConnecting solar panels together is a simple and effective way of increasing your solar power capabilities. Going green is a great idea, and as the sun is our ultimate power source, it makes sense to utilize this energy to power our homes. As solar power becomes more accessible, more and more homeowners are buying photovoltaic solar panels.

However, these photovoltaic solar panels can be very costly so buying them over time helps to spread the cost. But the problem then becomes how do we connect these extra solar panels together to increase the voltage and power output of what’s already there.

The trick here when connecting solar panels together is to choose a connection method that is going to give you the most energy efficient configuration for your particular requirements. Connecting solar panels together can seem like a daunting task when you first start to look at how it should be done, but connecting multiple solar panels together is not that hard with a little thought. Wiring solar panels together in either parallel or series combinations to make larger arrays is an often overlooked, yet completely essential part of any well designed solar power system.

There are three basic but very different ways of connecting solar panels together and each connection method is designed for a specific purpose. For example, to produce more output voltage or to produce more current. Solar panels can be wired in a series or parallel combination to increase the voltage or amperage respectively, or they can be wired together in both series and parallel to increase both the voltage and current output producing a higher wattage array.

Whether you are connecting two solar panels more more, as long as you understand the basic principles of how connecting multiple solar panels together increases power and how each of these wiring methods works, you can easily decide on how to wire your own panels together. After all connecting solar panels together correctly can greatly improve the efficiency of your solar system.

Connecting Solar Panels in Series

The first method we will look at for connecting solar panels together is what’s known as “Series Wiring“. Connecting solar panels together in series is used to increase the total system voltage. Solar panels in series are generally used when you have a grid connected inverter or charge controller that requires 24 volts or more. To series wire the panels together you connect the positive terminal to the negative terminal of each panel until you are left with a single positive and negative connection.

Solar panels in series add up or sum the voltages produced by each individual panel, giving the total output voltage of the array as shown.

Solar Panels in Series of Same Characteristics

connecting solar panels together in series

 

In this method ALL the solar panels are of the same type and power rating. The total voltage output becomes the sum of the voltage output of each panel. Using the same three 6 volt, 3.0 amp panels as above, we can see that when they are connected together in series, the array produces 18 volts (6 + 6 + 6) at 3.0 amps, or 54 watts (volts x amps).

Now lets look at connecting solar panels in series with different nominal voltages but with identical current ratings.

Solar Panels in Series of Different Voltages

solar panels in series with different voltages

 

In this method all the solar panels are of different types and power rating but have a common current rating. When they are connected together in series, the array produces 21 volts at 3.0 amps, or 63 watts. Again the amperage remains the same at 3.0 amps but the voltage output jumps to 21 volts (5 + 7 + 9) .

Finally, lets look at connecting solar panels in series with completely different nominal voltages and different current ratings.

Solar Panels in Series of Different Currents

solar panels in series with different currents

 

In this method all the solar panels are of different types and power rating. The individual panel voltages will add together as before, but this time the amperage will be limited to the value of the lowest panel in the series string, in this case 1 amp. Then the array will produce 19 volts (3 + 7 + 9) at 1.0 amp only, or only 19 watts out of a possible 69 watts available reducing the arrays efficiency.

We can see that the solar panel rated at 9 volts, 5 amps, will only use one fifth or 20% of its maximum current potential reducing its efficiency and wasting money on the purchase of this solar panel. Connecting solar panels in series with different current ratings should only be used provisionally, as the solar panel with the lowest rated current determines the current output of the whole array.

Connecting Solar Panels in Parallel

The next method we will look at of connecting solar panels together is what’s known as “Parallel Wiring“. Connecting solar panels together in parallel is used to boost the total system current and is the reverse of the series connection. By parallel wiring panels you connect all the positive terminals together (positive to positive) and all of the negative terminals together (negative to negative) until you are left with a single positive and negative connection to attach to your regulator and batteries.

When you connect solar panels together in parallel, the total voltage output remains the same as it would for a single panel, but the output current becomes the sum of the output of each panel as shown.

Solar Panels in Parallel of Same Characteristics

connecting solar panels together in parallel

 

In this method ALL the solar panels are of the same type and power rating. Using the same three 6 volt, 3.0 amp panels as above, the total output of the panels, when connected together in parallel, the voltage output would remain the same at 6 volts, but the amperage would increase to 9.0 amps (3 + 3 + 3), or 54 watts.

But what if our newly acquired solar panels are non-identical, how will this affect the other panels. We have seen that the currents add together, so no real problem there, just as long as the panel voltages are the same and the output voltage remains constant. Lets look at connecting solar panels in parallel with different nominal voltages and different current ratings.

Solar Panels in Parallel with Different Voltages and Currents

solar panels in parallel with different voltages and currents

 

Here the parallel currents add up as before but the voltage adjusts to the lowest value, in this case 3 volts. Solar panels must have the same output voltage to be useful in parallel. If one panel has a higher voltage it will supply the load current to the degree that its output voltage drops to that of the lower voltage panel.

We can see that the solar panel rated at 9 volts, 5 amps, will only operate at a maximum voltage of 3 volts as its operation is being influenced by the smaller panel, reducing its efficiency and wasting money on the purchase of this higher power solar panel. Connecting solar panels in parallel with different voltage ratings is not recommended as the solar panel with the lowest rated voltage determines the voltage output of the whole array.

Then when connecting solar panels together in parallel it is important that they ALL have the same nominal voltage value, but it is not necessary that they have the same ampere value.

Connecting solar panels together to form bigger arrays is not all that complicated. How many series or parallel strings of panels you make up per array depends on what amount of voltage and current you are aiming for. If you are designing a 12 volt battery charging system than parallel wiring is perfect. If you are looking at a higher voltage grid connected system, than you’re probably going to want to go with a series or series-parallel combination depending on the number of solar panels you have.

But for a simple reference in regards to how to connect solar panels together in either parallel or series wiring configurations, just remember that parallel wiring = more amperes, and series wiring = more voltage, and with the right type and combination of solar panels you can power just about any electrical device you may have in your home.

For more information about Connecting Solar Panels Together in either series or parallel combinations, or to obtain more information about the different types of solar panels available, or to explore the advantages and disadvantages of using solar power in your home, then Click Here to order your copy from Amazon today and learn more about designing, wiring and installing photovoltaic solar electric systems in your home.

Some high quality solar panels you may be interested in which can be connected together and used in solar arrays.


129 Comments » for Connecting Solar Panels Together
  1. totetiki totetiki says:

    I have 5 265w panels My battery bank is 12v If I connect parallel will I be able to connect to my battery bank?

  2. Davis Davis says:

    Hello Sir, l have 2 panels with different watts, one has 10 watts and another one has 15 watts, i want t connect them together , can you tell me wich method is good for my panels?

  3. Upinder bhandari Upinder bhandari says:

    Sir, can you please tell me what will total wattage in total if I connect two 250 watt 24 v in series ,,, will it be 500 watt 48v or it will be 250 watt 48v as one of my known told me that it will remain 250 watt but of 48v .. pls reply soon

  4. John Mushpnga John Mushpnga says:

    I want to design an off grid solar system. Currently l have 2*200watts monocryataline 1*100watts monocrystalin and a 1 *120watts solar panel.I also have a 24 volts Fortuner Imvertor
    Will the above components suffice to meet the demands stated?

  5. David Adams David Adams says:

    What a fantastic article! It’s been difficult finding articles that go beyond the normal ‘parallel adds current, series adds voltage’ type advice. Really very, very good! 🙂 Humbly, I might suggest adding details of how partial shading impacts series and parallel installations differently, and maybe a few comments about blocking and bypass diodes for the ultimate reference!

    I’m hoping I’ve read enough now to come up with a decent off-grid solar design for my caravan. I’ve been plagued by shading nuances because my 10 x 100W panels will be located 2 on the left-side, 6 on the roof and 2 on the right side, meaning the three strings will receive very different irradiance patterns throughout the day.

    I’m planning to have separate MPPT controllers for each string, 2 x Victron Energy 15/75 for the sides and 1 x 50/75 for the roof. Both side strings will have their 2 panels connected in series in order to maximise string voltage (i.e. greatest flexibility for the MPPT controller and minimise resistive losses). The panels are all going to be identical 100W, 22V (Voc), 6.04A (Isc) with optimum power at 17.7V @ 5.65A. My main controller can handle 50A battery side and up to 75Vdc PV side so I was planning on wiring the 6 roof panels in two parallel sub-strings of three panels in series. This maximises system operating voltage at 53.1V (17.7V x 3 = 53.1V), minimising resistive losses with only 5.65A flowing through each sub-string and only 11.3A (5.65A + 5.65A = 11.3A) back to the controller, whilst Voc remains within spec at 66Vdc. 600W / 12V = 50A is theoretically at the limits of the controller output, but, hey, those panel output power specs are likely unachievable in practice 😉 I’m planning on using 4mm2 solar cable for the sides and 6mm2 for the roof.

    Facing my caravan southerly, I figure the left-side would maximise capture of the morning sun, the roof 6 would capture as much as they can (i.e. being flat) during the day, and the right-side would maximise capture in the late afternoon / evening.

    I’ve spec’d the system for winter usage where I figure on 20% practical performance compared with ideal conditions. Given the minimal real-estate on a small 2-berth caravan, I figure this design will get me maybe 150W on average during my winter outings.

    I’d welcome your expert view on my design and would be eternally grateful for any comments, improvements or ‘gotchas’ you might have.

  6. gaurav gaurav says:

    currently i am getting only 20 to 22 amp max.

  7. gaurav gaurav says:

    hi,
    i have 5 solar panel i made diy solar panel using sunpower solar cell and encapulate with silicone.now when i check volt is 18 and amp is 5 in 11am.i am using esmart mppt solar controller.problem is that short amp is 5 but using amp is only 3.2. to 3.5amp max.i am not using any bypass diode because sunpower solar cell no need bypass diode.using cable 10mm and distance 10meter.using 150Ah lead acid battery.

  8. Hassan Howard Hassan Howard says:

    Can Mur460 diod be installed in a solar panel as blocking diod is 4amp 600v

    • THE MUR4xx series are rectifying diodes rated at 4 Amps so it depends on the current rating of your solar panel. If it is less than 4 Amps then it could be used. The 600V DC reverse voltage should not be a problem.

  9. Chuck Chuck says:

    Hello, the information is very helpful.

    ADDITIONALLY, is it possible to connect panels together in a SERIES-PARALLEL configuration without any harm the the panels?

  10. greg stemmler greg stemmler says:

    i have 2 ge panels on roof of my rv…one is 6volt-55watt ,other is 12 volt 100 watt./running( 2) 6 volt trojan batteries (ran as a 12 volt) how can i best wire the panels? i understand from your advice that neither series or parallel is ideal

  11. nelson nelson says:

    Hi I have 6 300w pannels with a 48 volts inverter and 24/48 volt charge controller and four batteries 175 ah. I want to use it on offgrid ,what system do u suggest I use between parallel or series

  12. Maxcilland Lyngdoh Maxcilland Lyngdoh says:

    Which one is better parralel connection or series connection

    • The power output will be the same whether connected in series or parallel. The choice of connection will ultimately depend on the specifications of the charge controller or inverter (for grid-connected) used. Having said that, I would prefer series connected as it produces a higher voltage and lower current for a given wattage, so less cabling with smaller cross-sectional areas can be used.

  13. samuel koduah samuel koduah says:

    Is a gud explanation, tanx alot

  14. Antonio Antonio says:

    Hi!
    I am designing a grid connected solar array of approx. 48 kWp that should supply a block of appartments. All the panels are the same model and I know home voltage is 230V. Knowing that a DC/DC converter can amplify or reduce the amperage of the array, Do you know what are the criteria to establish the series/parallel configuration of the panels? Should the voltage output of the array equal 230 V? should it be higher? Is there a rule of thumb or something as such?

    Any advice would be very much appreciated.

    Thank you in advance!

    Tony

    • A grid-connected system uses a Solar Inverter to take the DC output from the PV array and converts it to an alternating current (AC) supply. But the inverter does not just simply convert a DC input to any old AC output waveform, but instead ensures that the AC waveform it produces matches the frequency and magnitude tolerances of the connected power grid. Also good quality inverters use maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to maximise the amount of energy from the solar PV array as Power In = Power Out.

      Solar inverters are generally designed to take advantage of the solar modules configured as a high-voltage PV string array usually from about 200 VDC to 500 VDC “open-circuit” voltage (Voc) depending on model to supply the 230 VAC nominal grid output voltage. Also the inverters maximum input current rating should not be less than the arrays short circuit (Isc) rating. Then ensure that the series/parallel configuration of the array matches the Voc and Isc requirements of the chosen inverter.

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