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Alternative Energy Tutorials on Energy Articles

Impulse Turbine

water turbine design

Impulse Turbines are bidirectional turbines used in hydro power and ocean power applications. Impulse turbines convert the kinetic energy of moving water, firstly into mechanical energy and secondly into electrical energy using an electrical generator. Impulse turbines use buckets or paddles plus one or more water jets directed at these buckets as they rotate. The water flows over the turbine blades at atmospheric pressure so is generally suited for high head, low flow applications.

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DC Generator Design

dc generator

DC permanent magnet generators are commonly used in small wind turbine and micro-hydro designs as the main generator of electrical energy. Brushless direct current (DC) permanent magnet machines are preferred due to their efficiency, reliability, longer life, less maintenance, and higher power output. DC generators for wind turbine applications use permanent magnets to create the magnetic field required for electrical generation. These turbine-driven PMDC generators can produce output power over varying wind speed conditions

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Turgo Turbine Design

water turbine design

Turgo turbine designs are classed as impulse turbines that generates power from a high velocity jet of water. Turbine selection is a critical part of any small scale hydro scheme and there are plenty to choose from. Turgo turbines are well suited to low head run-of-river schemes which have large flow variations. As an impulse turbine, theTurgo design uses jets of water aimed at its runners to deliver the water pressure required for rotation. The efficiency of aTurgo turbine depends on the number of nozzle jets, runner design and effectiveness of water discharge

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Hydro Power and Hydroelectric Power

hydroelectric power

Hydroelectric power is a renewable source of energy using the gravitational flow of water. Water in motion from rivers, ponds, lakes and reservoirs can all be used to generate hydro power and natures weather ensures that the water cycle is a renewable resource. Hydroelectric power uses the kinetic energy of flowing water used to turn turbines and generators with the head height and pressure of the moving water determining the amount of electrical energy that is produced. Hydroelectric plants do not create air pollution or emissions as the fuel, the falling water, is not consumed but flows away downstream for use another day

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Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

wind turbine design

Verical wind turbines are a relatively new concept in the design of wind turbines. Different vertical axis machines are being designed and developed such as the helical types which can catch the wind from all directions for use in urban environments where their small size and high power output are more suited to home use. Vertical axis wind turbines are also considered safer due to their lower vertical height, rotational speeds, and less moving mechanical components. VAWT designs have their electrical generators positioned closer to the ground for easily access and maintanence. The Darrieus and the Savonius vertical axis types are emerging as the most popular

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Cross Flow Turbines

water turbine design

Cross flow turbines are is the cheapest and easiest hydro turbine available and so are commonly used in small scale hydro schemes were reducing cost is important. One of the major disadvantages of practical cross flow turbines is their lower performance and efficiency compared to other hydro turbine designs such as Pelton and Francis turbines. The turbine is the major component of any hydropower scheme so improving its efficiency in terms of power extraction from the available head and flow of water as well as its cost is clear. Cross flow turbines use stationary nozzles which direct water onto a rotating runner so nozzle design and runner performance are key

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Induction Generators

indution generator

Induction generators are electrical machines used in wind turbine and hydro turbine applications to generate electrical energy.
Wind turbines operate over a wide range of wind speeds so any electrical generator attached to the turbines blades must also be able to operate at a variable rotational speed. Induction machines are asynchronous generators meaning that when it is driven or rotated at a higher speed than its synchronous speed, that is the rotational speed determined by the frequency of the supply, its torque will be negative so starts acting as a generator rather than a motor. Then operating an induction machine as a generator it is necessary to turn the machines rotor faster than the synchronous speed

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Small Scale Hydro Power

small scale hydro

Small scale hydro power schemes exploit water as a renewable resource and are characterised by their use of local, small hydropower plants installed on small rivers and pipelines so do not require the expensive construction of dams or reservoirs also making them environmentally friendly. Low-cost small scale hydro power plants generate electrical energy for one or more housholds from a single stream. Due to their simple construction and low head pressure, small scale hydro installations tend to use Turgo turbine designs.

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Water Turbine Design

water turbine design

Efficiency is a critical consideration in the design of hydro turbines so they range from one’s which use curved or flat blades to some which are shaped like small buckets. A hydraulic turbine is the main component of any hydropower system so choosing the right turbine for the job is important. Power generation from hydraulic turbines depends on the availablity of water head, penstock design, water velocity and the number of jet nozzles directing water to the water turbines blades or buckets. Typical water turbine designs have names of Pelton, Francis and Kaplan turbines after their designers.

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Induction Generator

indution generator

Induction generators are squirrel caged machines responsible for transforming the kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Three-phase induction machines have three electrical windings embedded into its stator so are well suited for wind power and even hydroelectric power generation. Induction machines, also known as asynchronous machines, rotate above synchronous speed when used as an electrical generator producing 3-phase AC electricity. As an induction generator can be synchronised directly with the main utility grid supply, it produces electricity at the same frequency and voltage.

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