Biomass resources and biorenewable resources are all forms of organic materials, including plant matter both living and in waste form which can be used as an energy crops. The availability of biomass resources from forestry management, farming activities and agricultural industries depends on the energy crop specifically devoted to the production of biofuels from different cereals, beet and oilseeds for the production of bioethanol and biodiesel production
Coal is our number one fossil fuel resource and the second most consumed fossil fuel behind crude oil which is refined into oils and fuels. Coal is formed from decaying plant matter in swamps and bogs over millions of years with the Earths geological processes altering and transforming this plant matter into a solid combustible sedimentary rock made of carbon and other gaseous substances producing a product which is packed with energy. Coal energy plays too significant a role in generating electricity and driving our economies to be dismissed altogether, but the environmental drawbacks of this non-renewable fossil fuel are being addressed to reduce its impacts on climate change
Passive solar design increases energy efficiency and comfort in homes. Sunlight can supply ample heat, light, and shade into a well-designed home without the need for HVAC machines and as such designing your home to use passive solar can reduce your heating and cooling energy bills. Passive solar energy design is nothing new but by designing the layout of your home with the sun in mind will make it more energy efficient, comfortable, and affordable
DC Water Heating elements can be used to heated up water with DC electricty from a PV panel or array. Low voltage resistive heating elements are available in a range of voltages and wattage ratings for off-grid applications ranging from a few hundred watts to many kilo-watts
Solar thermodynamic heating systems use solar energy to heat water in the home. Thermodynamic solar panels absorb the environmental heat around themeselves to heat up water for a range of different uses, from domestic hot water to home central heating systems, to swimming pool heating. Thermodynamic solar collector use a heat transfer fluid refridgerant which can heat water 24 hours a day. Unlike conventional flat plate solar panels, solar thermodynamic heating systems do not require direct sunlight and can produce heat no matter what the weather conditions even at night, in rain or on overcast days
A dump load, also known as a diversion load, diverts electricity from a battery bank into a resistive load once the charging is complete in order to prevent them from overcharging and becoming damaged. Dump loads such as power resistances, electric water heaters or hot air heaters dissipate any excess power generated by wind or microhydro generators otherwise their rotational speed may increase to the point that they self-destruct or create overvoltage conditions
The Betz Limit, or Betz Law, defines the theoretical maximum efficiency a wind turbine generator can produce when rotating at optimal performance. Albert Betz calculated and concluded that any wind turbine can not convert more than 59.3% of the winds kinetic energy into useful mechanical energy simply by turning a rotor blade. A turbines coefficient of power allows us to calculate the total amount of power a wind turbine is producing from the total energy available in the wind at a particular wind speed. This theoretical maximum coefficient of power is known as the Betz Limit.
The efficiency of biomass energy depends on how effectively biomass resources can be converted into electrical power, heat and fuels using a variety of new techologies and traditional methods. Biomass energy crops are now being grown in vast quantities to produce modern forms of energy such as biofuels for transport, pellets for electricity generation as well as a wide diversity of bio-chemicals and bio-lubricants making biomass a truely versatile fuel.
Heat exchanger design has changed very little over the years but their importance in terms of energy conservation, conversion, recovery, and successful implementation of new energy sources has. Heat exchangers are used in many power, heat-recovery, process, transportation and refrigeration applications, so the choice of heat exchanger thermal design is important. Fan assisted finned type heat exchangers are the most commonly used design mainly because they are cheap, while water cooled heat exchanger designs are more efficient but expensive
Energy storage fulfils three distinct functions of, to charge, to store and to discharge energy. An energy storage device is a device used for storing electrical energy and releasing it when required. The most commonly used for of energy storage device is the battery. Lead-acid batteries are a key component in any renewable energy storage system as an off-grid system that is not, or mostly not, connected to the utility grid requires some form of battery backup to supply the total energy needs of the complete energy system when renewables are no working